Politics of Rwanda takes place in a framework of a presidential republic and are based on multi-party system.
The President of Rwanda is both head of state and head of government; Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is held by the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
5 May 1995, the Transitional National Assembly adopted a new constitution which included elements of the constitution of 18 June 1991 as well as provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord and the November 1994 multiparty protocol of understanding.
After its military victory in July 1994, the Rwandese Patriotic Front organized a coalition government similar to that established by President Juvénal Habyarimana in 1992. Called The Broad Based Government of National Unity, its fundamental law is based on a combination of the constitution, the Arusha accords, and political declarations by the parties. The MRND party was outlawed.
Mobilizing divisions along political lines was banned until 2003. The first post-war presidential and legislative elections were held in August and September 2003, respectively.
The current government prohibits any form of discrimination by gender, ethnicity, race or religion. The government has also passed laws prohibiting emphasis on Hutu or Tutsi identity in most types of political activity.
Branches of Government.
|President||Paul Kagame||Rwandese Patriotic Front||24 March 2000|
|Prime Minister||Pierre Habumuremyi||Democratic Republican Movement||7 October 2011|
The President of Rwanda is elected for a seven-year term by the people. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the president.
The Parliament (Inteko Ishinga Amategeko or Parlement) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Umutwe w’Abadepite/Chambre des Députés) has 80 members, 53 of them elected for a five-year term by proportional representation with a 5% threshold, 24 (female members) elected by provincial councils, 2 by the National Youth Council and 1 by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled. It is the only legislative chamber in the world where women (45) outnumber men (35). The Senate (Umutwe wa Sena or Sénat) has 26 members elected or appointed for an eight-year term: 12 elected by provincial and sectoral councils, 8 appointed by the president to ensure the representation of historically marginalized communities, 4 by the Forum of political formations and 2 elected by the staff of the universities. Additional former presidents can request to be member of the senate. Rwanda is a one party dominant state with the Rwanda Patriotic Front in power. Opposition parties are allowed, and are represented in Parliament, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power.
The Supreme Court of Rwanda is the highest judicial power in Rwanda. It and the High Council of the Judiciary oversee the courts of lower ordinary jurisdictions and courts of the special jurisdictions in Rwanda.
Rwanda has 5 provinces: Kigali Province, Northern Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and Western Province.
International organization participation
Rwanda is member of Agency for the French Speaking Community, African,Carribean and Pacific Group of States, African Development Bank, Common Wealth of Nations, Customs Cooperation Council, Economic Community of Central African States , Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries, Economic Commission for Africa, Organization , Group of 77, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Development Association, International Fund for Agricultural Development, International Finance Corporation, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies , International Labor Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, International Criminal Police Organization, International Olympic Committee , International Organization for Migration (observer), International Telecommunication Union , Non-Aligned Movement, Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical weapons, United Nations, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, United Nations Educational,Scientific,and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Universal Postal Union, World Confederation of Labor, World Health Organization, World Intellectual Property Organisation, World Meteorological Organisation, World Tourism Organization, Word Trade Organization
Rwanda joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 2009, making the country one of only two in the Commonwealth without a British colonial past the other being the former Portuguese colony Mozambique.